BusinessFixed price vs T&M contract or maybe mixed model of cooperation with software agency

Many companies prefer to cooperate with external partners. Let's assess the fixed price vs t&m models of cooperation.
Matt Sadowski
Matt Sadowski


Stanislav Naborshchikov
Stanislav Naborshchikov

Solutions Specialist

Table of contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Conclusion

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When embarking on the journey of custom software development or seeking support for information systems, many medium and small businesses find it more advantageous to join forces with external partners through contractual agreements, considering between fixed price vs t&m software agreements. Such an approach not only obviates the need for maintaining an in-house team of IT experts but also streamlines the complexities involved in cost management. This way, businesses can anticipate costs more clearly, allocate their internal resources towards their core competencies, and infuse their projects with a fresh perspective and cutting-edge technologies by external specialists.

However, amidst the myriad benefits lies a decision that often becomes a problem for both clients and software houses: how should the financial aspects of the project be approached? At the heart of this decision is the pricing model to be adopted. Different projects and their unique requirements often align better with specific pricing structures. The Time and Material contract (T&M) and Fixed Price contracts are the predominant models in the IT outsourcing landscape. Each of these contract types carries its own set of advantages and challenges. As businesses contemplate which to adopt, it becomes imperative to delve deeper into the nuances of these models, weigh their respective merits, and discern which aligns best with the project at hand and the organization's long-term goals. Let’s explore which contract type best suits you - T&M vs fixed price.

The essence of the Time and Materials price contract

The model assumes hourly payment for the work of attracted specialists. The customer pays for the result based on the labor costs of software development. The estimate of the scope of work and the timing of the project is made only approximately. At T&M pricing, changes in requirements and product design are often made, and the main thing is the result and quality of the final product, not the price and timing.

Main Features of Time & Material Contract

time and material contract for software project

Interim Deadlines

Unlike fixed-price models, where a singular deadline is often established for the entirety of the project, the Time and material (T&M) contract segments the work into shorter, manageable stages, typically spanning 2-4 weeks. For each step, specific goals and deliverables are outlined. This phased approach ensures consistent progress monitoring, and at the end of each period, a detailed report is compiled to assess the accomplishments and any adjustments required for subsequent stages.

Payment for Labor Costs

Central to the time and materials contract is its flexibility in billing based on actual labor hours consumed. Clients are billed based on the hourly rates of the involved professionals. This approach directly ties the payment to the work hours invested by the development or IT team. Whether it's developers, designers, or testers, their hourly rates factor into the total cost. This granular billing provides transparency, allowing clients to understand precisely where and how their investment is utilized.

In the position of client, as a price incentive we can expect some discounts for the first few days or weeks of particular specialist involvement in the project, or one or two days free of charge commitment that will allow client to evaluate the quality and skills of the IT professionals hired to the project.

Adaptability to Changes

Given its periodic review structure, the time and materials contract offers greater flexibility to make mid-course corrections. If there's a need to pivot or alter the project's scope based on evolving requirements or unforeseen challenges, the model can accommodate without requiring a complete contract overhaul.

Transparency and Collaboration 

Regular check-ins and stage-end reports foster a transparent environment. It keeps the client in the loop and encourages a collaborative relationship where feedback is continually integrated, ensuring that the project remains aligned with the client's vision.

Risk and Responsibility Distribution 

Both parties share the risks since the work is assessed and billed in intervals. While the software house ensures that they deliver as per the agreed objectives for each stage, the client, on the other hand, remains vigilant and active in reviewing progress, ensuring that the project doesn't veer off track.

Cost Predictability for Each Stage

Even though the overall project cost might not be fixed as in the fixed-price model, the segmented nature of the time and materials contract provides cost predictability for each phase. Clients can budget for each stage, keeping in view the estimated hours and resources required.

Pros and cons of the time and material contracts

Benefits of time and materials contract from the client's perspective

  • Ease of Interaction: In the T&M model, the communication chain is streamlined. Unlike fixed-price contracts, where communication can sometimes be convoluted due to strict project definitions, T&M fosters a more open interaction. The client communicates directly with a project manager as a single point of contact. Understanding both the technical and business sides, the manager effectively delegates tasks and expresses the client's requirements to the team, ensuring all stakeholders are on the same page.

  • High Response Speed: Agility is a hallmark of the T&M model. The dynamic nature of this model ensures that any alterations, whether they are change requests, shifting priorities, or unforeseen challenges, can be rapidly addressed. It requires prompt communication with the project manager, who can swiftly redirect the team's focus, ensuring minimal disruptions and delays.

  • Selection of Team Members: A unique advantage of T&M is the empowerment it gives clients regarding team composition. They aren’t just passive recipients of a pre-defined team. Instead, they can actively participate in selecting team members based on their expertise, experience, and fit for the project. This ensures that the right talent is deployed for tasks that align with their strengths.

  • Transparency of Work: The iterative nature of the time and materials contract and regular check-ins and feedback loops ensures a transparent working relationship. Clients can monitor project progress almost in real-time, with 24/7 feedback mechanisms and consistent monitoring of interim results. This level of visibility instills confidence and trust, as clients are always in the know about the project's trajectory.

  • Simplicity of Financial Planning: With the transparent working methodology of T&M, financial planning becomes more straightforward. Clients can allocate budgets for specific project stages, ensuring they understand pricing, hourly rates, consumption hours, and where their funds are utilized. Furthermore, the time and materials contract, by its very design, often results in cost savings. Without the need for extensive upfront estimations and buffers that are common in fixed-price models, clients can realize savings of 10-30% of the project budget.

  • Flexibility in Scope: Unlike fixed price contracts, where scope changes can become cumbersome and expensive, T&M offers flexibility. As the project progresses and business requirements evolve, the scope can be adjusted, ensuring the end product is more aligned with the client's current needs.

  • Collaborative Approach: The time and materials contract inherently promotes collaboration. With regular interactions and feedback, the client and the software house work hand-in-hand, sharing insights, expertise, and ideas. This collaborative approach often leads to more innovative solutions and better project outcomes.

In essence, the time and materials contract, from a buyer's vantage point, provides a harmonious blend of flexibility, control, transparency, and cost-efficiency, making it an attractive option for many software development endeavors.

Disadvantages of time and materials contracts from the client's perspective

  • Lack of an Accurate Budget: One of the most significant concerns with the T&M model is the inherent unpredictability surrounding the final project cost. Unlike fixed-price contracts, where the budget is set from the begining, the T&M model bills based on the actual hours worked. This fluidity can sometimes make it challenging for clients to anticipate the final expenditure, posing potential financial risks, especially if the project experiences unforeseen complications or scope expansions.

  • Constant Interaction: While regular feedback and open communication channels can be a boon for ensuring project alignment and quality, they can also become a double-edged sword. The need for consistent interaction can be time-consuming for clients, requiring them to be actively involved and available for discussions, reviews, and decision-making. This can become burdensome for clients with multiple responsibilities or those who prefer a more hands-off approach.

  • The Risk of Hiring an Unscrupulous Outsourcer: Given that the T&M model charges based on time invested, there's a potential pitfall where an unethical software house might inflate the number of hours worked to increase the billing. This could manifest in the form of exaggerated work hours, unnecessary tasks, or deliberate slowdowns. Such overestimations can strain the client's budget and erode trust. It underscores the importance of diligent vetting when selecting a software development partner.

  • Potential for Scope Creep: The flexibility of the T&M model can sometimes lead to scope creep, where the project's boundaries and objectives continuously expand. Without a firm scope, as is more common in fixed-price contracts, clients might find their projects becoming larger and more complex than initially intended, leading to increased costs and extended timelines.

  • Requires Active Client Involvement: The T&M model thrives on active client participation. For businesses that do not have the bandwidth or expertise to be continually involved, this model can prove challenging, potentially leading to misalignments or delays.

  • Uncertainty in Delivery Timelines: Just as the budget can be fluid in a T&M model, so can the project's delivery dates. As clients and developers iterate, make changes, or face unforeseen challenges, the project's end date might get pushed further out, making it harder for clients to plan launches or marketing efforts.

While the time and material model offers numerous benefits, its disadvantages highlight the importance of trust, open communication, and clear guidelines. It's essential for clients to be aware of these potential pitfalls to navigate the T&M waters effectively.

Advantages of time and materials contracts from the contractor's point of view

  • Full Commitment to the Project: One of the primary strengths of the T&M model is the unwavering focus it instills in the development team. Without the rigid constraints that fixed-price contracts often come with, developers can channel their energies solely on development, addressing tasks with diligence, and meeting interim deadlines. This structure ensures that the team isn't spread thin across multiple competing priorities, leading to better quality output and more consistent progress.

  • Payment Based on Work Results: A remuneration structure rooted in actual labor hours and tasks completed is both transparent and motivating. Developers are aware that every hour they invest will be compensated, and this direct correlation between effort and remuneration serves as a potent motivator. It often leads to a more engaged and dedicated team, striving not just for project completion but also for excellence in execution.

  • Low Risks: Segmenting the project into distinct stages allows the software house to assess, plan, and execute with more precision. With each stage having its defined objectives and deliverables, it becomes easier for the team to estimate the required effort, resources, and associated costs. This phased approach minimizes uncertainties and ensures that any potential challenges or deviations can be addressed promptly without affecting the overall project trajectory.

  • Flexibility in Approach: The T&M model, by its very nature, offers developers the leeway to adapt and modify their strategies as the project progresses. If certain methodologies or tools aren't yielding the desired results, teams can pivot without the bureaucratic delays that fixed-price contracts might impose.

  • Enhanced Collaboration: Given the iterative feedback loops and regular client interactions inherent in the T&M model, the development team often benefits from real-time feedback. This dynamic fosters a collaborative environment where the team can quickly integrate client insights, ensuring the end product aligns closely with client expectations.

  • Optimal Resource Allocation: The modular nature of the T&M approach allows software houses to optimize resource allocation efficiently. They can deploy resources based on the immediate requirements of the current phase, ensuring that skills and manpower are utilized most effectively.

  • Builds Trust with Clients: The transparency that comes with billing based on actual hours and work done can strengthen the bond of trust between the software house and the client. Clients appreciate knowing where their money is going, and this goodwill can pave the way for longer-term collaborations and repeat business.

  • Continuous Learning and Improvement: Given the consistent feedback and periodic reviews, development teams can continuously refine their skills and processes. Each stage serves as a learning opportunity, allowing teams to hone their methodologies and deliver better results in subsequent phases.

In essence, the time and materials model offers software development companies a balance of flexibility, motivation, and risk management, making it a favored choice for projects where adaptability and continuous collaboration are paramount.

Disadvantages of time and materials contracts from the contractor's point of view

  • Fluctuating Revenue Stream: Unlike fixed-price contracts that guarantee a certain income for the software house once the project is completed, the T&M model can lead to fluctuating revenues.  If the buyer decides to make a downward revision on hours or even halt the project temporarily, it can result in unpredictable earnings for the software company, making financial planning challenging.

  • Increased Administrative Overhead: With the T&M model, the software company must often maintain meticulous records of hours worked, tasks completed, and resources used. This granularity can increase the administrative load, necessitating dedicated personnel or tools to ensure accurate billing.

  • Client Dependency: The success of a T&M project often hinges on active client participation. If a client is not responsive, doesn't provide feedback on time, or frequently changes their mind, it can cause delays and disruptions, potentially leading to increased costs and extended timelines for the software house.

  • Risk of Non-Payment: Given the open-ended nature of T&M contracts, there's always a risk that the client might dispute the number of hours billed or question the necessity of specific tasks. It can lead to disagreements over payments and, in some cases, non-payment for the work done.

  • Resource Management Challenges: With fluctuating work hours and potential changes in project scope, managing resources effectively becomes a challenge. The software company might need help to allocate developers, designers, or testers efficiently, leading to periods of underutilization or overextension.

  • Scope Creep from the Developer’s Side: Just as clients can continuously expand the project scope, developers might also unintentionally allow for scope creep by overcommitting or trying to incorporate more features than initially discussed. It can strain relationships and lead to financial and timeline overruns.

  • Potential for Misaligned Expectations: Without a fixed scope, the software house's understanding of the project's objectives diverges from the client's vision. Constant realignments can become time-consuming and frustrating for the development team.

  • Difficulty in Long-term Planning: As projects under the T&M model can evolve and change, long-term planning for the software house becomes challenging. Forecasting resource requirements, technological needs, and other logistical aspects are more complex when the project's trajectory remains fluid.

  • The pressure of Continuous Performance: Since the client is continually monitoring progress and the software house is billing based on hours, there's consistent pressure on the development team to showcase tangible results regularly. It can be stressful and may push teams to prioritize speed over quality.

In conclusion, while the time and materials model offers flexibility and adaptability, software development companies must be prepared to handle its inherent challenges. Effective communication, robust project management tools, and a culture of transparency can help mitigate some of these disadvantages.

When should I choose the time and material contract for my software project instead of the fixed price agreement?

When contemplating the optimal software development contracts, time and material contracts (T&M) emerge as the preferable choice in several situations. It's an ideal fit for projects with evolving or unclear requirements at the outset, providing the agility to adapt as the development progresses. This adaptability also makes time and material contract a go-to choice for ongoing or long-term projects that might need shifts in focus or direction over time. If you envision high involvement in the project, wishing for regular interactions, feedback sessions, and updates, time and material accommodate this continuous engagement. Projects on the cutting edge, exploring novel technologies or solutions, benefit from time and material's inherent flexibility, allowing for iterative adjustments as outcomes unfold. Additionally, time and material contracts often present the liberty to handpick specific team members or recalibrate team dynamics based on the project's evolving needs. A hallmark of T&M is its billing transparency, which offers clients a lucid understanding of effort versus cost, billed on actual hours worked, for those cautious about substantial upfront financial commitments or those who prefer to start with a smaller scope and scale based on visible progress, time and material contract stands out as a favorable option.

Are you looking for trusted software agency for software developement or data science project?

As Mobile Reality, we are open to different forms of cooperation, such as time and materials, fixed price, or mixed models. We provide our clients with end-to-end support in web and mobile app development projects. Don't hesitate to contact us.
CEO of Mobile Reality
Matt Sadowski
Or contact us:
North America
+1 718 618 4307
European Union
+48 607 12 61 60


Your message has been sent.

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The essence of the Fixed Price price model

The Fixed Price model implies an assessment of all planned works and the time required for their implementation following the client's requirement. That is, even before the start of the project, the timing and project cost are precisely determined by the development team. It is a kind of guarantee for the customer that the project will be completed by the designated date and for the agreed price. If, in the course of work, it becomes clear that more tasks need to be solved than planned, the outsourcer agrees to revise the budget with the customer, but each additional analysis takes time and has to be scheduled in accordance with the approved timeline of the project in this cooperation model.

Main Features of Fixed Price Contracts

fixed price contract for software project

Predetermined Deadline

In the battle of fixed price vs T&M, one of the standout features of a fixed price contract is the clearly established deadline. This predetermined schedule ensures the client and the software house understand when the project or specific deliverables are due, fostering clarity in expectations and planning.

Set Price and Budget

One of the primary appeals of the fixed price contract is the budgetary certainty it offers. Clients know upfront how much the project will cost and the contract price, eliminating the fear of unexpected expenses. This clear financial understanding aids businesses in their financial planning and budget allocations. Fixed priced contracts characterized by adjustable price. The more features you would like to put in the product development backlog, the more you would need to pay, and vice versa.

Moreover, during the negotiations and clarification of the final scope and budget before starting the project, both parties, the software development company, and the client, are open to price adjustments. The vendor is more willing to offer price incentive to convince the client to choose him instead of other vendors.

Well-defined Scope

Fixed price contracts necessitate a detailed scope of work to be established at the outset. This clarity ensures that both parties understand the project's boundaries, deliverables, features, and functionalities to be developed.

Reduced Client Supervision

Given the preset scope and deliverables, clients don't need to be as intricately involved in the day-to-day development process, allowing them a more hands-off approach compared to the T&M contract.

Risk Allocation

With fixed price contracts, the risk largely shifts to the contractors, so software development companies. They commit to delivering the project within the stipulated time and budget, absorbing any additional costs arising from miscalculations or unforeseen challenges.

Payment Milestones

Typically, fixed price contracts will have predetermined payment milestones. These might be tied to completing specific phases, deliverables, or other criteria, ensuring staggered and structured payment cycles.

Minimal Changes

Fixed price contracts tend to be more rigid regarding changes or modifications in scope. Any deviations or additions usually require formal change requests, which might lead to renegotiations regarding costs and timelines.

Performance-Based Deliverables

Since the contract revolves around a set contract price for predetermined deliverables, the focus remains on achieving those deliverables as defined, ensuring adherence to the promised output.

Penalties and Incentives

This type of contract often comes with clauses related to penalties for delays and sometimes even incentives for early completion, ensuring the software house remains motivated to stick to the schedule.

In summary, fixed price contracts offer a structured, well-defined framework for software development projects. They are especially suitable for projects with a clear vision and established requirements, where budgetary and timeline certainties are paramount.

Risks and advantages of fixed price contracts

Benefits of fixed price contracts from the customer's point of view

  • Financial Guarantees: One of the strongest suits of a fixed price contract in the tug-of-war between fixed price and time and materials contracts is its financial predictability. Clients can budget accurately, knowing the extent of their financial commitment. This upfront clarity means there are no unexpected costs or budget overruns, providing security and enabling better financial planning.

  • Exact Deadlines: With the timeline firmly set, clients can confidently anticipate project completion. This predefined schedule offers a structured view of the project's progression, allowing stakeholders to align their strategies, resources, and any dependent tasks or projects accordingly. This predictability aids in streamlining operations and ensuring smooth transitions from one phase or project to the next.

  • Efficient Communication: A well-defined project scope with detailed specifications reduces the need for continuous back-and-forth communication. While collaboration is vital, the absence of daily clarifications or discussions can free up client resources, allowing them to focus on other strategic initiatives. This set-and-forget mode of operation can be a boon for clients who prefer a hands-off approach once the contract is in place.

  • Reduced Risks: With every project detail meticulously outlined in the technical specification, there needs to be more room for ambiguity or misinterpretation. This clarity drastically minimizes the potential for subpar or off-target deliverables. Clients can have confidence that the end product will align closely with their vision and expectations, ensuring they get the value they paid for.

  • Transparent Deliverables: A fixed price contract outlines the deliverables in great detail, clarifying what the final product will encompass. This clarity ensures that both parties are on the same page, reducing the chance of discrepancies or unmet expectations.

  • Enhanced Accountability: Given the nature of the contract, software houses are bound to meet the stipulated requirements within the agreed-upon budget and timeframe. This binding commitment enhances their accountability, ensuring they deploy their best resources and expertise to honor the agreement.

  • More straightforward Vendor Evaluation: The clear stipulations of deliverables and timelines make evaluating the software house's performance easier for clients. They can measure the vendor's efficiency, effectiveness, and reliability against clear benchmarks, simplifying the review process.

  • Peace of Mind: One of the more intangible benefits, yet profoundly significant, is the peace of mind a fixed price contract can offer. Clients can rest easy knowing that the project's costs, timelines, and deliverables are set in stone, reducing the anxieties often associated with fluid and dynamic projects.

In essence, fixed price contracts can anchor stability in the often turbulent seas of software development, offering clients a dependable framework within which their projects can take shape. It's particularly well-suited for those who prioritize financial and timeline predictability and have a well-defined vision of the end product.

Disadvantages of fixed price contracts from the customer's point of view

  • Necessity for Detailed Specification: The foundational pillar of a fixed price contract is the comprehensive specification document. Everything from the project's objectives, application functionalities, and design nuances to the architectural decisions—must be meticulously defined to ensure an explicit agreement. Preparing such an exhaustive specification can be time-consuming and demands significant upfront effort from the client.

  • Potential for Overpayment: With fixed price contracts, the software house might pad its quotes to safeguard against potential uncertainties or unforeseen challenges. This built-in buffer, meant to cover their risks, can lead to clients paying more than what the actual development might have cost under a more flexible pricing model.

  • Challenges in Implementing Changes: The very nature of a fixed price contract can make it resistant to changes. Incorporating these changes can be cumbersome if a client identifies the need for alterations or additions after the project has commenced. Not only does it involve amending the existing agreement and potentially renegotiating costs and timelines, but it also necessitates updating documentation. This process can delay project delivery and might also introduce additional costs.

  • Potential for Miscommunication: Given the detailed nature of the specification document, there's a possibility of misinterpretations or ambiguities. If the software house needs to understand certain aspects and build features aligned with the client's vision, rectifying those can be complicated and costly.

  • Lesser Collaboration: Fixed price contracts often result in a more transactional relationship between the client and the software house. With everything predetermined, there might be fewer opportunities for collaborative brainstorming or adaptive development based on emerging insights.

  • Rush to Completion: To maintain profitability, the software house might be incentivized to complete the contract as quickly as possible, potentially compromising on thorough testing or quality assurance.

  • Risk of Stagnation: In rapidly evolving industries or markets, sticking rigidly to a previously defined scope might render the final product obsolete or less competitive when launched.

  • Strained Relationships: If unexpected challenges arise that weren't accounted for in the original contract, the relationship between the client and the software house can be strained. There could be disputes over who should bear the additional costs or how to move forward.

In conclusion, while fixed price contracts offer predictability in terms of budget and timeline, they come with their set of challenges, especially if flexibility and adaptability are required during the project's lifecycle. Clients should weigh the pros and cons based on their specific needs, the nature of the project, and the dynamics of their relationship with the software house.

Advantages of fixed price contract from a contractor’s perspective

  • Availability of Detailed Specifications: A fixed price contract usually comes hand-in-hand with comprehensive specifications. Having a clear and detailed blueprint means the development company can gauge the intricacies and requirements of the project with precision. This clarity reduces ambiguities and ensures the team knows exactly what's expected, which can lead to a smoother development process.

  • Understanding the Scope of Work and Deadlines: A well-defined scope offers a clear roadmap for developers, designers, testers, and other stakeholders. Knowing the boundaries and deliverables helps streamline the workflow, ensuring everyone works towards a common goal. The established deadline also provides a clear target, instilling a sense of urgency and direction, which can boost productivity and focus.

  • Predictable Revenue Stream: With the project costs set in stone, the software company can accurately anticipate its revenue from the project. This financial predictability aids in cash flow management and can be beneficial for budgeting and financial forecasting.

  • Reduced Client Interactions: While collaboration is essential, a fixed price contract with clear specifications can minimize the need for frequent client interactions for clarifications or direction. This can lead to more uninterrupted work periods, boosting productivity.

  • Enhanced Resource Allocation: Knowing the scope and timeline allows the company to allocate its resources—both human and technological—more efficiently. Teams can be structured optimally, and tools and technologies can be chosen with the project's specific needs in mind.

  • Reputation Building: Successfully delivering on a fixed price contract can enhance the company's reputation. Meeting the stipulated deliverables within the agreed timeline and budget showcases reliability, building trust with current and potential clients.

  • Clear Accountability Framework: The clear stipulations of a fixed price contract establish an accountability framework. This clarity ensures that every team member understands their responsibilities, leading to a more cohesive and collaborative work environment.

  • Risk Management: While fixed price contracts can introduce certain risks, they also enable the software house to identify potential challenges upfront, thanks to the detailed specification. This foresight allows for proactive risk management strategies, ensuring that possible roadblocks are addressed before they escalate.

  • Enhanced Project Management: The predetermined scope and timelines facilitate more effective project management. With clear milestones and deliverables, project managers can monitor progress with ease, ensuring that the project stays on track.

  • Strengthened Client Trust: Delivering on the promises of a fixed price contract can foster trust and confidence in clients. This trust can pave the way for future collaborations and recommendations, expanding the company's client base.

Disadvantages of fixed price contract from a contractor’s perspective

  • Insufficiently Precise Specification: One of the primary challenges with fixed price contracts is the absolute need for a thorough specification. However, even with the best efforts, there might be certain oversights or ambiguities. If the Statement of Work (SOW) isn't precise, there's a heightened risk of misinterpretation or overlooking key deliverables. This can lead to discrepancies between client expectations and the final product.

  • Pressure: Fixed price contracts come with a set scope and timeline, offering little room for deviation. This can pressure the contractor’s development team to deliver within the stipulated parameters. The emphasis on adhering to strict criteria may sometimes curb creativity and limit the exploration of potentially better or innovative solutions.

  • Risk of Additional Work: In software development, unexpected challenges or unforeseen requirements often arise. With a fixed price contract, accommodating these additional tasks can prove difficult, especially if there are subsequent projects lined up. Any addition can lead to rescheduling, impacting the company's workflow, and possibly incurring opportunity costs.

  • Financial Risks: Since the budget is predetermined, the software company assumes most of the financial risk. Any unforeseen complexities or changes have to be addressed without additional client payment, which can strain the company's budget. This requires the developer to potentially factor in a buffer into the initial price, which might make their proposal less competitive.

  • Reduced Flexibility: A rigid scope and timeline can reduce the flexibility typically required in agile software development processes. Iterative development, feedback loops, and pivots become challenging, making it difficult to adapt to changes or new insights during the development phase.

  • Potential for Reduced Quality: The pressure to stay within the budget might lead to corners being cut, potentially affecting the quality of the final product. While professional companies prioritize quality, the inherent constraints of a fixed price contract might sometimes lead to compromises.

  • Client Relationship Strains: Any discrepancies between the delivered product and client expectations can strain the relationship. If there's a perception that the delivered software doesn't match the agreed-upon specifications, it can lead to disputes and potential reputation damage.

  • Challenges in Scope Management: Scope creep, wherein additional features or changes are introduced beyond the agreed scope, is a common challenge in software development. Managing this within the constraints of a fixed price contract can be particularly challenging, often leading to either unmet client expectations or unpaid work for the developer.

  • Limited Client Engagement: The set-it-and-forget-it nature of fixed price contracts might lead to reduced client engagement throughout the contractor’s development process. This lack of regular feedback can result in a final product that, while adhering to the SOW, might not fully align with the client's evolving needs or market changes.

  • Stress on Team Morale: The constant pressure to adhere to tight deadlines and fixed specifications can strain the contractor’s development team, potentially affecting morale and job satisfaction.

When should I choose the fixed price contract for my software project instead of the time and material model?

When considering the best approach to a software project, the fixed fee type of contract stands out as an ideal choice under specific conditions. It is particularly suited for projects that have clear, detailed, and unambiguous requirements that are set from the onset and unlikely to change during development. This model brings the benefit of financial predictability, making it an excellent choice for those operating under strict budget constraints or who desire cost stability. Furthermore, shorter projects, or relatively straightforward ones without much room for change, can benefit from a fixed price agreement. For those who wish to minimize their daily involvement in the project and limit the frequency of communication, this model offers the simplicity of handing over the outlined specifications and awaiting the final product. Risk-averse entities will also find solace in the fixed price model, as it puts the onus of delivering within the defined budget on the software agency, ensuring that costs don't escalate unpredictably. Projects with definitive launch dates, where timely delivery is paramount, can rely on the deadlines specified in fixed price contracts. Lastly, those who may not possess in-depth technical expertise can lean on this model, relying on the software agency's expertise without constant technical discussions. In essence, for types of projects that seek clear parameters, limited flexibility, and prioritizing predictability in costs and timelines, the fixed fee contract is a commendable choice. However, to avoid potential misunderstandings and to ensure a seamless development process, it's crucial to have comprehensive documentation of the project's scope and requirements before entering such an agreement.

The essence of the MIX model

Combining the Time and material (T&M) and Fixed Price models to create a hybrid or mixed model can offer a balanced approach to software development cooperation. This model attempts to capitalize on the strengths of both individual models while mitigating their respective weaknesses. Let's discuss the advantages, challenges, and considerations of such a mixed approach.

Advantages of the Mixed Model

Flexibility and Predictability

By combining T&M for some parts of the project (like initial research, prototyping, or phases that are harder to estimate) and Fixed Price for others (like well-defined functionalities or modules), clients get the flexibility to adjust requirements while also benefiting from the predictability of costs and timelines.

Risk Distribution

The model distributes risks between the software house and the client. The contractor can ensure they're compensated fairly for exploratory or uncertain tasks (through T&M) while committing to a fixed cost for well-defined aspects.

Enhanced Collaboration

The T&M component can promote regular communication and feedback, while the fixed price portion ensures that there's a clear understanding of specific deliverables.


As the project progresses, and more about its intricacies is understood, additional phases can be moved from T&M to fixed price, ensuring clearer budgeting and timelines.

Challenges and Considerations

  • Complex Contractual Agreements: Creating a contract for a mixed model can be more complex than for a standalone model. Both parties, client and contractor, need to clearly define which components are billed as T&M and which have a fixed price.

  • Potential for Misunderstanding: There might be confusion or disputes over billing, especially if there's not a clear delineation between T&M and fixed price tasks.

  • Management Overhead: Managing a mixed model might require additional effort, especially in tracking hours, progress, and costs across the different billing structures.

  • Client Trust: Such a model might need a higher degree of trust between the client and the software house. The client should feel that the developer won't exploit the T&M aspect, and the developer needs to trust that the client understands the value of flexibility.

When to Consider the Mixed Model

  • Large Projects: For extensive projects with both well-defined phases and areas of uncertainty, a mixed model can be beneficial.

  • Startups and Innovations: When developing a new product or solution where the initial stages involve research, experimentation, or iterative development, the T&M component is handy. As features get defined, they can transition to a fixed price model.

  • Ongoing Partnerships: If there's an established relationship between a client and a software house, a mixed model can foster collaboration, with the software house sometimes even suggesting which components should be T&M vs. fixed price.

In conclusion, while the mixed model offers a balanced approach, its success largely depends on clear communication, well-defined contracts, and trust between both parties. It's a model that requires maturity and understanding from both the client and the software development company. When executed well, it can offer the best of both worlds, combining the adaptability of T&M with the predictability of a fixed price contract.

Are you looking for trusted software agency for software developement or data science project?

As Mobile Reality, we are open to different forms of cooperation, such as time and materials, fixed price, or mixed models. We provide our clients with end-to-end support in web and mobile app development projects. Don't hesitate to contact us.
CEO of Mobile Reality
Matt Sadowski
Or contact us:
North America
+1 718 618 4307
European Union
+48 607 12 61 60


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In the intricate dance of software development and cooperation with a software house, the billing model and contract type choice isn't just about costs; it's about aligning expectations, managing risks, and ensuring a successful outcome. With its predictability and well-defined scope, the Fixed Price model offers clarity and security, making it particularly suitable for projects with precise requirements and boundaries. On the other hand, the T&M model brings flexibility to the table, accommodating evolving needs and promoting deeper collaboration, especially when projects tread uncertain waters or when innovation is at the core.

Yet, as we've delved into, no model is without its challenges. Both models have strengths and pitfalls, from the pressure of tight timelines in fixed price contracts to the financial unpredictability in T&M agreements. This has given rise to the mixed model, a hybrid approach attempting to harness both worlds' best. This model may strike the right balance for businesses looking for a blend of predictability and flexibility, although it demands robust communication and trust.

In the end, the decision on which billing model to choose boils down to the nature of the project, the relationship between the client and the software house, and the appetite for risk and flexibility. It's essential to weigh the pros and cons carefully, understanding that the right model is one that fosters collaboration, meets the project's unique needs, and paves the way for software success. As the world of software development continues to evolve, so too will these models, but the core principles of clarity, collaboration, and value will remain paramount.

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Matt Sadowski

CEO of Mobile Reality

CEO of Mobile Reality

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